Lesson 19 ADM, CRM and Review of Cross Country Planning

Ear and Sinus Block

This happens when the Eustachian tube gets blocked and the pressure will not equalize


Very painful in ears or behind the eyes

Plugged ears or sinuses


incapacitation in some circumstances

Eardrum can rupture

Corrective Actions:

Use the Valsalva Maneuver

Descend very slowly or climb

Menthol inhaler

Menthol cough drops will sometimes work




carbon dioxide

Hypoxia lack of oxygen to the body

Oxygen partial pressure

Different for different people

5000 feet at night

12,000 during daytime

12,500 to 14,000 above 15,000 oxygen rules



peripheral vision starts to grey out


Feeling of euphoria

Tingling in the extremities


Loss of judgment


Corrective Actions:

Go on Oxygen

Descend to a lower altitude


Time of Useful Consciousness

18,000 20 – 30 Minutes

22,000 10 Minutes

25,000 3 – 5 Minutes

28,000 2 – 3 Minutes

30,000 1 – 2 Minutes

35,000 30 Seconds

40,000 9 – 12 Seconds

43,000 9 – 12 Seconds

50,000 9 – 12 Seconds


Abnormal increase in the volume of air breathed in and out of the lungs which causes the body to blow off excessive carbon dioxide


Similar to hypoxia


Similar to hypoxia

Corrective Actions:

Set O2 system to deliver 100% O2 just in case it is hypoxia

Slow the breathing rate

Do the checklist out loud

Sing the Star Spangle Banner

Carbon Monoxide poisoning

CO attaches to the hemoglobin more readily than O2

Takes a Hyperbolic chamber to force the O2 back into the blood


Similar to hypoxia except finger nail beds and lips will turn red


Similar to hypoxia except add death to that list

Corrective Actions:

Close all heat valves

Set O2 system to deliver 100% O2 just in case it is hypoxia

Open window try to ventilate the cabin

Descend to a lower altitude

SCUBA Diving

The bends

12 hours for flights below 8,000 and no dives requiring a controlled ascent

24 hours for flights above 8,000 or dives requiring a controlled ascent

Spatial Disorientation

This happens when your kinesthetic inputs disagree with what is really happening with the plane

The fluid in your semi-circular canals gets to sloshing around

Pay attention and believe your flight instruments

Night Vision

Your eye is made up of Rods and Cones

Rods are light receptive nerves that sense peripheral vision and shades of grey

Cones are light receptive nerves that sense color and clear visual acuity

It takes 30 minutes for a chemical called visual purple to build.

After 10 minutes of darkness your eyes are 10,000 times more sensitive

After 30 minutes they are 100,000 time more sensitive

Fitness For Flight


I Illness

M Medication

S Stress

A Alcohol

F Fatigue

E Emotion


Compound emergencies are emergencies in quick succession

Verify information with your instrumentation

Follow the manufacturers recommended emergency checklist


When you know it is out of the ordinary it is probably time to take action

Always choose the course of action that will give you the most options

When all else fails undo what you just did


The emergency frequency is 121.5

ELT’s transmit on this frequency for up to 48 hours after a 5 to 7 g shock

The pilot should turn on the switch if possible after crashing to insure operation

Wear what you would like to spend the night in

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