Lesson 12 Basic Navigation


A predetermined path from one point to another (drawn on a sectional chart)

True Course

The course referenced to true north

Magnetic Course

The course referenced to magnetic north


The difference between true north and magnetic north


The direction the nose of the aircraft is pointed. (A course with the wind correction applied)

True heading

A true course with the wind correction applied

Magnetic heading

A magnetic course with the wind correction applied

Wind correction angle

Angle in which the aircraft must be pointed to achieve zero drift


Read off the compass correction card, the compensation factor for small errors in the compass caused by electromagnetic fields in the aircraft.


Navigation by reference to outside landmarks

Dead Reckoning

Navigation by using the numbers

Radio Navigation

Use of Radio Aids for navigation


Made when two lines of Position cross

Can be also a radial and a distance

Points of Latitude and Longitude

Latitude and Longitude

Longitude – lines from pole to pole

Latitude – lines parallel to the equator also known as parallels

1 degree of latitude is 1 NM

The Prime Meridian

The prime meridian is the first line of Longitude that runs through Greenwich England

Everything is measured East or West of the Prime Meridian


The Equator is the first line of Latitude

Everything is measured North or South of the Equator

Great and Small Circles

Circles whose planes run through the center of the Earth

This represents the shortest distance between 2 points


VFR Terminal Area charts are 1:250,000 or about 4 SM to the inch

Sectionals are 1:500,000 or about 8 SM to the inch

World Aeronautical Charts are 1:1,000,000 or about 16 SM to the inch



+- WCA


+- VAR


+- DEV


Plotting a Course

Take out sectional and plotter

Plot a course from MWH to Davenport

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