AVF 223 Instrument Course Introduction

You will need:
Instrument Flying Handbook FAA-H-8083-15B
Instrument Procedures Handbook FAA-H-8083-16
Weather Services Handbook AC-0045G
Aviation Weather AC 00-6A
Low Enroute Chart L-13, L-14
U.S. Terminal Publication Volumes NW-1 (Approach Plates)
AKT test prep book or software
C-23 POH (for the x-country stuff)

Grading and Attendance
The grading scale used by the aviation department listed on the syllabus
You will have 4 tests averaged for your score
All scores have to be above 70% or a retake above 70%
The first score is the score that goes into the grade book
All tests are cumulative
Attendance is mandatory, same as your first year classes
If you miss a class it must be made up
In order to be eligible for the endorsement for the AKT, you must be passing the class and obtain a passing grade on the final

The Instrument AKT
Statistically this is the hardest AKT you will take
Pass rate on this test is about 80%
That means 2 out of 10 fail this test
FAA expanded the test question bank in 2011
Made the test even harder
The FAA is keeping track of who fails

Why Get the Rating?
For you it’s pretty obvious
Almost all your professional flying is going to use your instrument skills
Congested airspace
Complicated airspace
Bad weather
Night flying

The Rating
Ok so you get your rating, are you ready to blast off into 200 and a ½?
Probably not
Just like with VFR, you need to establish your own personal minimums
Best to take a pilot friend on a VFR day and file IFR to a nearby airport for some practice approaches
If it gets too hairy you can always cancel IFR at anytime
You need both experience and confidence when flying IFR, this is a good way to get both
Nothing will put the fear of God into you as losing your situational awareness while staring at a solid white windscreen

What is IMC?
Instrument Meteorological Conditions
Categorical Outlooks
LIFR ceiling less than 500, vis less than 1 mile
IFR ceiling 500-1000, vis 1-3 miles
MVFR ceiling 1000-3000, vis 3-5 miles
VFR ceiling above 3000, vis above 5 miles
Anytime you’re in the clouds your in IMC conditions
When operating in less than 1000 and 3 in controlled airspace you must be on an IFR clearance or have a special VFR

Logging Instrument Time
You may log instrument time all that time while controlling the plane by sole reference to instruments
You have to be under dual instruction or
Have an appropriately rated safety pilot onboard
If you have your rating you may log instrument time, only that time you are IMC while solo or pic
You may log only the approaches you fly
You can’t log approaches you watch someone else fly, even in IMC

Instrument Currency
Once you have your rating you may not be PIC in unless you meet the recency requirements set forth in 61.57
What this means is, unless your current, you may not accept an IFR clearance

Instrument Currency
61.57 c
You must have performed and logged within the previous 6 months:
6 instrument approaches
Holding procedures and tasks
Intercepting and tracking courses through the use of navigational electronic systems

Instrument Currency
61.57 d

(d) Instrument proficiency check. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, a person who has failed to meet the instrument experience requirements of paragraph (c) of this section for more than six calendar months may reestablish instrument currency only by completing an instrument proficiency check. The instrument proficiency check must consist of at least the following areas of operation:

(i) Air traffic control clearances and procedures;

(ii) Flight by reference to instruments;

(iii) Navigation systems;

(iv) Instrument approach procedures;

(v) Emergency operations; and

(vi) Postflight procedures.

(2) The instrument proficiency check must be—

(i) In an aircraft that is appropriate to the aircraft category;

(ii) For other than a glider, in a full flight simulator or flight training device that is representative of the aircraft category; or

(iii) For a glider, in a single-engine airplane or a glider.

(3) The instrument proficiency check must be given by—

(i) An examiner;

(ii) A person authorized by the U.S. Armed Forces to conduct instrument flight tests, provided the person being tested is a member of the U.S. Armed Forces;

(iii) A company check pilot who is authorized to conduct instrument flight tests under part 121, 125, or 135 of this chapter or subpart K of part 91 of this chapter, and provided that both the check pilot and the pilot being tested are employees of that operator or fractional ownership program manager, as applicable;

(iv) An authorized instructor; or

(v) A person approved by the Administrator to conduct instrument practical tests.

Instrument Currency
In plain English please!
It amounts to a 6 month look back
If you have the prescribed experience within the past 6 months you’re current
If not, you have 6 months to get yourself current
If it’s been 12 months, you have to get an Instrument Proficiency Check (IPC) from a CFII

Instrument Currency
Pilot McDuffus gets his rating Jan 2014 and does no instrument flying at all
He is current for 6 months through June 2014
He has a 6 month window to get current himself from July to December
In January he has to now go get an IPC

Instrument CurrencyExample 2:
Pilot McDuffus gets his rating January 2014
He flies 3 approaches in March and tracking holding and 3 more approaches in May
When is his currency up?
If you said anything but September 1st please change your name to McDuffus
The 6 month look back rule requires the approaches in March and May to be current through August
6 months forward from March makes August 31st the last day of currency

Adam Wallitner memorial slide 9/26/19

Instrument Currency
Example 3:
So Pilot McDuffus waits until September to go fly instruments is he current?
If he is not current can he accept an IFR clearance?
So how can he get himself current?
Instrument Currency

Example 3(still):
He may get McDuffledorf and go do the approaches in VFR conditions
He must request “VFR Practice Approaches” from ATC
Under the hood with a safety pilot in VFR conditions doing VFR Practice Approaches he has a 6 month window from July 1 to December’s end to get himself current this way
After December he has to get an IPC

Instrument Currency
Example 4:
Pilot McDuffus could not do his approaches in May IMC because it was VFR all month, so how did he do it?
Solo with the hood on is not a valid answer
He got his private pilot friend McDingledorf (who is appropriately rated in the plane) to ride along and be safety pilot, while he did the approaches
Bonus question:
Who gets to log PIC time on this flight?
Answer: they both do

The IPC must be given by a qualified CFII, a regular CFI can’t do it
The CFII will use the instrument practical test standards as a guide for what to cover on the ride
You must fly within the PTS standards to pass the IPC
At the successful conclusion, you will be given an endorsement in your logbook
Your currency clock starts ticking from that point on
The IPC may be given in VFR conditions while wearing the hood or actual IMC at the discretion of the CFII
You may log instrument time during that time you control the aircraft solely by reference to the instruments


  • Vertical dimensions
  • Horizontal dimensions
  • Pilot requirements
  • Equipment requirements
  • Visibility requirements
  • How depicted on the sectional
  • Special requirements

Class A

  • 18,000 to FL 600.
  • Contiguous U.S.
  • Pilot must be IFR rated.
  • Plane must be IFR rated.
  • No vis requirements.
  • Not marked on sectional.
  • Must have an IFR clearance

Class B

  • Must have clearance prior to operating
  • Only found around heavy traffic areas

Class B

  • Surface to 10,000 msl
  • Denoted by solid blue line
  • Pilot can be student in some private minimum in others
  • Mode c and two way radio
  • 3 miles vis clear of clouds
  • 30NM mode c veil surrounds class B surface to 10,000 msl

Class C

  • Surface to 4000agl
  • Inner circle 5nm, outer circle from 5 to 10nm from 1200agl to 4000agl
  • Pilot can be lowest form
  • Mode c and two way radio
  • 3 mile vis 500 below 1000 above 2000 horizontal
  • Solid magenta line.
  • Must establish two way radio comm. Prior to entering.
  • 2 way radio comm. Is established when they say call sign back.
  • Found around high traffic areas but less than class B airports.

Class D

  • Surface to 2500agl
  • Average 4.4 nm based on rwy length
  • Pilot can be lowest form
  • Two way radio
  • 3 mile vis 1000′ ceiling
  • Dashed blue line
  • Must establish two way radio comm. Prior to entering.
  • Some class D airports have surface based E extensions to protect instrument approaches.
  • If no weather reporting when tower closes, then it reverts to G.
  • If there is wx reporting then it reverts to E.

Class E

  • Surface, magenta dash line
  • Class E can start at 6 different altitudes:
  • Surface
  • 700agl, magenta shading
  • 1200agl blue shading
  • 14,500msl not marked
  • Custom (zippers)
  • Picks up again at FL600
  • Ends at:
  • up to but not including 18,000
  • Pilot can be lowest form
  • No radio requirements when VFR
  • Less than 10,000msl; 3 miles 500 below, 1000 above, 2000 horizontal
  • Over 10,000msl; 5 miles 1000 below, 1000 above, 1 mile horizontal

Class E

  • If desired ops in surface E with weather less than 3 miles and 1000′ ceiling need special VFR otherwise none
  • Configured to include instrument approaches
  • Surface based; dashed magenta line

Class E Transition Area

  • 700agl magenta shading towards the area designated
  • 1200agl blue shading towards the area designated
  • Blue zippers designate special altitudes of floors on sec
  • 14,500msl denoted by sharp edged blue shading forming a box

Class E Transition Area

  • Does 3W7 have an IFR approach? How about 2S8?

Class G Uncontrolled

  • Surface to 700agl
  • Or surface to 1200agl
  • Or surface to 14,500msl
  • Denoted by shading
  • Student pilot
  • No equipment requirements

Class G Uncontrolled

  • Less than 1,200agl day 1 mile clear of clouds, night 3miles 512 BAH
  • More than 1,200 agl but less than 10,000msl day 1 mile 512BAH, night 3 miles 512BAH
  • More than 1,200agl and more than 10,000msl 5 miles 111BAH
  • Terry Haws contribution (night G 10/20/14)
  • Class G Uncontrolled
  • Look for the class E depictions
  • By process of elimination any airspace that is not A,B,C,D, or E then it must be G

Class G Uncontrolled

Special Use Airspace

  • 1. Prohibited
  • 2. Restricted
  • 3. Warning areas; 3nm outward from U.S.
  • 4. Moa
  • 5. Alert areas; high volume of training
  • 6. Controlled firing areas; ops suspended automatically
  • 7. National security areas; voluntary like Hanford

Special Use Airspace

Other Airspace Areas

  • 1.Airport advisory area; 10nm FSS.
  • 2.MTR; 4 numbers below 1500agl, 3 numbers above 1500agl.
  • 3.Temporary flight restrictions; by notam, toxic gas, volcano, nuclear accident, hijackings ect.
  • 4.Parachute jump ops; contained in AFD
  • 5.Published VFR routes
  •   through class B, VFR flyways, corridors, transition routes
  • 6.Terminal radar service area


  • Special VFR
  • You have to ask for it
  • After you get your private you may obtain this
  • Whenever less than 1000 and 3 in a B, C, D, or E
  • Some B’s and C’s do not allow special VFR
  • Check appendix D of Part 91 for the list
  • After receiving special VFR clearance you may operate with 1 SM and clear of clouds

For the Quiz

  • Know 91.155 by memory
  • Know how the airspace is depicted on the sectional
  • Know the requirements of each airspace
  • Know the dimensions of each airspace
  • Know 91.157 “Special VFR” by memory
  • Know the currency requirements
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