Intro & Planning Instructional Activity

CFI Ground School AVF 225


Effective Communications in Flight Instruction

Reference Materials
Flight instructor
(AIH) Aviation Instructor’s Handbook
(KIM) The Flight Instructor’s Manual – Kershner
(AFH) Airplane Flying Handbook FAA-H-8083-3A
(PHAK) Pilots Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge FAA-H-8083-25A
(Including Appendix 1 Runway Incursions)
(Ker) The Advanced Pilots Flight Manual – Kershner
(W&B) Weight and Balance Handbook FAA-H-8083-1A
(RMH) Risk Management Handbook FAA-H-8083-2

(IFH) Instrument Flying Handbook FAA-H-8083-15B
(FAR/AIM) FAR/AIM – current year
(AW) Aviation Weather AC 00-6A
(WS) Aviation Weather Services AC 00-45G change 2
(Gleim) Flight Instructor Pilot test prep book
Helicopter Instructor’s Handbook FAA-H-8083-4
Helicopter Flying Handbook FAA-H-8083-21A
Introduction to Helicopter Aerodynamics Naval Air Training Command TH-57
Learning Statement Reference Guide
IACRA Instruction Manual

Reference Materials
There is a complete list of references listed in the CFI PTS starting on page 3 for airplanes, page 4 for helicopter
Hit the FAA’s website to download these
Some of the more well used AC’s are:
61-67C change 1 Stall Spin
61-91J Wings Program
90-48 Collision Avoidance
91-73B Runway Incursions
61-98B Flight Review
61-65C Certification of Pilots and Flight Instructors
61-115 Positive Exchange of flight controls

The Exam
There are 2 AKT’s
FOI Fundamentals of Instruction
Information for this comes straight out of the Aviation Instructor’s Handbook
FIA Flight Instructor Airplane or FIH Flight Instructor Helicopter
Information for this comes from various FAA sources
Neither of these require an endorsement
The oral exam
Often lasts several hours
Information for this comes from various FAA sources
The CFI PTS stands as the format for the conversation

The Exam
The Flight Test
Usually about 1.5 hours
Information for this comes from various sources but mainly the PHAK and the AFH
The CFI, Commercial and Private PTS provide the format for the flight check

The Exam
Since the PTS figure so highly in the CFI exam we will use it as our guide for study
The test should follow the PTS pretty closely
You will need a lesson plan for each task in all 3 of the PTS’s
Some lessons you may combine
For example steep turns
As you generate your lesson plans write down what page you find each of the number points under the Objective
This will do 2 things for you:
Make it easier to study in the days right before the practical
Make it easier for you to competently look something up if you get stuck on the test

The Exam
The oral is covered in the CFI PTS Areas of Operation:
I Fundamentals of Instruction
II Technical Subject Areas
The flight check covers all the rest stating with Area of Operation III Preflight Preparation
You should expect the examiner to do the walk around with you asking various systems questions as you teach the preflight walk around
This test uses the Bonanza or the Robinson for the flight check as the case may be

The Exam
The exam will start with you answering the first question:
What qualifications/endorsements are needed for the CFI test
You will need copies of your 8710, pilot certificates, drivers license, medical and endorsements
You will need to prove the airworthiness of the aircraft you plan to use for the test
After all those pleasantries are exchanged, the test will begin in earnest
You will also need cash if taking the test with a DPE
If you take the test with the FAA, the test is “free”

The Exam
By the time you are done, the examiner will know all that you know and all that you don’t know
You will not be able to bluff or stumble you way through any task
If the examiner senses you are less than sincere on any topic, more in-depth questions will follow
This test is the opposite of any test you have taken thus far
You are required to have “Instructional Knowledge” of all subjects
This means the examiner will throw out a topic and you will provide ALL the facts for that topic
If you miss any facts, it will likely result in a fail
The idea behind this is your students will not know if you are providing them with all the subject matter they need for a particular topic

Teaching Fundamentals of Instruction
FOI topics should be approached as if you are teaching a CFI student
There are several lists involved here so the more acronyms you can use the better your recall will be
Expect to be able to address each numbered topic under each task
Some examiners will let you babble on about what you know then give you a scenario showing your application of your knowledge

Teaching Maneuvers
For any maneuver there are 4 points that need to be addressed
1. The Objective and the Description of the maneuver
2. Configuration
3. Common Student Errors
4. Practical Test Standards
The objective listed in the PTS for each maneuver is testing objective not a teaching objective
You should pull your objective from the first paragraph or two out of the AFH
This is also the case for the FOI objectives as well
The description is covered in the paragraphs that follow
You will need at least 2 documents for each FOI or maneuver topic
The lesson plan and;
You will need to develop an outline covering the main points
This document is separate from the lesson plan

Teaching Maneuvers
There are 7 configuration items for the Bonanza
1. Mixture
2. Prop
3. Throttle
4. Gear
5. Flaps
6. Cowl Flaps
7. Airspeed
You’ll need to address each one even if no change is to be made for the maneuver in question

Teaching Maneuvers
Common Student Errors
These are listed at the end of each maneuver section in the AFH

Planning Instructional Activity Chapter 6 Aviation Instructor’s Handbook
There are 4 key topics
Course of training
Blocks of learning
Training syllabus
Lesson plans

Course of Training
The best example of this is your BBCC Training Course Outline
It is a course of training systematically laid out to achieve a certain set of goals
Certificate of completion, graduation, or academic degree
In our case all of the above plus pilot certification
As an instructor working in this framework, you plan your instructional content within this framework
Lesson plans, testing, levels of learning are tools used

Blocks of Learning
The first step is to determine the objectives and standards
Identifying the individual blocks of learning is the next step
Each basic block supports the objective
Blocks are arranged in a pyramid structure with many blocks depending on others
For example, pitch, roll and yaw control must be mastered before straight and level
So in teaching straight and level, pitch, roll and yaw would be elements of straight and level

Training Syllabus
In order to cover all the bases, a training syllabus is used
This provides a systematic approach to complex teaching tasks
It should contain all the blocks needed
They should be arranged in a logical manner
Well defined objectives and completion standards must be included
If the order of lessons is not followed care should be taken there are no holes in student knowledge
Many lessons depend on the previous lesson
This insures learning takes place in a linear fashion

Lesson Plans
A lesson plan is an organized outline for a single instructional period
It should tell the instructor
What to do
What order to do it
What procedure to use in teaching the material
A mental outline is not a lesson plan
Any other instructor should be able to take your lesson plan and know what to do instructionally
Some instructors use their lesson plans in the airplane and have the student sign them at the completion of the lesson
This provides the instructor with a record of what was taught

Purpose of a Lesson Plan
The goal is to use a lesson plan to provide the best possible instruction
An adequate lesson plan should:
Assure a wise selection of material and the elimination of unimportant details.
Make certain that due consideration is given to each part of the lesson.
Aid the instructor in presenting the material in a suitable sequence for efficient learning.
Provide an outline of the teaching procedure to be used.
Serve as a means of relating the lesson to the objectives of the course of training.
Give the inexperienced instructor confidence.
Promote uniformity of instruction regardless of the instructor or the date on which the lesson is given.

Characteristics of a Well-Planned Lesson
1. Determine the Objective
2. Research the subject as defined by the Objective
3. Determine the method of instruction
4. Identify the most useful lesson plan format
5. Organize the lesson
6. Select support material
7. Assemble training aids
8. Write the lesson plan outline
Sometimes you may want to start at the beginning and work through
Or you may want to start at the beginning then skip to the end and fill in the middle
It should be a living document easily changed or updated

Characteristics of a Well-Planned Lesson
Identify the outcomes (what the student should know)
Teaching procedures and materials should directly support outcomes
Cover new material
Incorporate new material with what the student already knows
Try not to overload a student with too much new information
This is determined by the complexity of the subject
To much info = confusion, frustration
To little info = inefficiency, frustration
Should relate to the conditions of the training
Lessons in a sim are different than in the aircraft

Characteristics of a Well-Planned Lesson
Although there is a plan, it may not fit every student
Also there may be supplemental material you want to add in
Relation to course of training
It should be clear how the lesson relates to the objective
Instructional steps
Every lesson should fall into 4 steps:
Review and evaluation

The Lesson Plan
Follow the recommended lesson plan format
You must generate your own lesson plans
The objective
Ask yourself what do you want the student to know when the lesson is done
The objective must be measurable to enable the instructor to know if it has been successfully met
These are all the pieces a student must know to meet the objective or perform the maneuver
All the physical necessities to teach the lesson

The Lesson Plan
Instructor Actions
A list of how you’re going to go about teaching this particular lesson
Include anything that is hard for you to remember
Like the formula for 8’s on Pylons
Student Actions
What is required of the student to enable the lesson objective to be met
Completion Standards
This comes straight out of the PTS for that lesson
Add anything you would like to see the student to be able to answer or perform above the PTS
Within reason, must support the objective

The Lesson Plan
The lesson plan is highly personalized
It should fit both your style of teaching and your student’s style of learning

Scenario Based Training
The goal of SBT is to present training in such a way to promote decision making skills
Usually the instructor uses experience to present a condition that requires the student to make choices
Those choices are then played out, within the confines of safety, right or wrong to enable the student to experience what make a good decision a good one or a bad decision a bad one

Scenario Based Training
The instructors duties are:
1. Orient new learners to the SBT approach.
2. Help the learner become a confident planner and a critical evaluator of his or her own performance.
3. Help the learner understand the knowledge requirements present in real world applications.
4. Diagnose learning difficulties and help the individual overcome them
5. Evaluate student progress and maintain appropriate records.
6. Provide continuous review of student learning.

The SBT Lesson Plan
These differ from traditional lesson plans
They are much more detailed
Flight scenario:
Scenario destination(s)
Desired student learning outcomes
Desired level of student performance
Possible inflight scenario changes
Non-flight scenario:
Narrative of the task goal
Desired student learning outcomes
Desired level of student performance
Possible scenario changes

The SBT Lesson Plan
SBT is situated in a real context and is based on the idea that knowledge cannot be gained and fully integrated independent of its context
SBT shoots for a performance improvement and a behavior change philosophy of the learning function
SBT is different from traditional instructional design
One must be aware of the differences to successfully employ SBT
Most learning solutions should employ both traditional training and SBT
Traditional learning elements should enhance the SBT elements
It is essential to place boundaries around scenarios to make the transitions between scenarios and traditional learning as efficient as possible
Open-ended qualitative learner feedback is key to successful scenario revision
Revisions should not further complicate the scenario unless highly justified

Getting Started
Get a large 3 ring binder
Formulate a system to keep your information organized
Download all reference material listed in the PTS
Make an outline for each task in the PTS
Make a lesson plan for each task in the PTS
Gather and organize the support and research material for each lesson
Read and study
Read and study
Read and study some more

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