Airports, Airspace, ATC

Commercial Ground School AVF 221


Airport Facility Directory
7 different volumes
Comes out every 56 days
The A/FD is a vital part of cross-country flight planning, and a copy should be aboard the airplane during the flight.
Having an appropriate VFR sectional chart is insufficient for cross-country flight planning because the A/FD shows data that cannot be readily depicted in graphic form; e.g., airport hours of operations, types of fuel available, runway lengths, etc.
All pertinent information regarding airports, seaplane bases, and heliports open to the public; FSS contact information; communication frequencies; etc., is contained in this directory.
The A/FD also contains National Weather Service telephone numbers listed alphabetically by state.
The Aeronautical Chart Bulletin section contains a listing of major changes (e.g., new frequencies, obstructions, etc.) to each sectional, VFR terminal area, and helicopter route chart within each chart cycle.
A digital version is available at the AeroNav site

Directory Legend
City/Military Airport Cross Reference
Seaplane Landing Areas
Special Notices
Regulatory Notices
FAA and National Weather Service Telephone Numbers
Key to Aviation Weather Reports
Air Traffic Facilities Telephone Numbers
Air Route Traffic Control Centers
Flight Service Station Communication Frequencies
Flight Standards District Offices
Low Altitude Directional Routes
High Altitude Preferred Routes
RNAV Routing Pitch and Catch Points
VOR Receiver Check
Parachute Jumping Areas
Aeronautical Chart Bulletins
Supplemental Communication Reference
Airport Diagrams
National Weather Service (NWS) Upper Air Observing Stations
Enroute Flight Advisory Service (EFAS)

Grouped into four categories:
Runway Markings
Taxiway Markings
Holding Position Signs

1. Runway markings:
There are 3 types of runway markings:
Non-precision instrument
Precision instrument
Runway designator; mag. Number L, C, R

Runway aiming point; solid block 1000 feet down
Touchdown zone; solid and broken lines every 500′
Side stripe; continuous white stripe on each side
Shoulder markings; continuous yellow stripe not for aircraft use

Threshold markings:
2 types:
4 to 16 stripes or
A 10′ wide white bar across the runway called a threshold bar
Displaced threshold; not at the beginning of the runway for obstacle clearance or construction.
May be used for taxi, rollout and takeoff but not landing

Demarcation bar; yellow across delineates unusable portion of overrun, blast pad, stopway, or taxiway
Chevrons; area that may appear to be useable but is not

Centerline; 6″ yellow stripe
Edge markings
2 types:
Double yellow delineates area not to be used for aircraft
Dashed double yellow delineates area that can be used for aircraft like an apron

Double yellow defines taxiway edge
If broken same thing but you can cross them
Shoulder; yellow lines 90 degrees to edge markings
Painted direction signs; indicate runway or left or right turn
Geographic position markings; help you id your position in low vis conditions
Enhanced taxiway centerline markings
Warns of approaching a hold short line
150 feet prior to hold short line

Runway hold lines; 4 lines, 2 solid 2 broken.
One may find hold lines:
Preceding the runway
On the runway eg intersections
On a taxiway that cuts to close to approach/departure end of a runway.
No part of the aircraft may cross the hold short lines.

ILS hold lines; 2 solid lines and lines 90 degrees to them
Taxiway hold lines; single dashed line

Taxi signs; black background with yellow letter indicates taxiway aircraft is on
Yellow background with black letter indicates direction of taxiway ahead


Runway distance sign; usually has black background white#


91.157 Special VFR weather minimums.
(a) Except as provided in appendix D, section 3, of this part, special VFR operations may be conducted under the weather minimums and requirements of this section, instead of those contained in § 91.155, below 10,000 feet MSL within the airspace contained by the upward extension of the lateral boundaries of the controlled airspace designated to the surface for an airport.
(b) Special VFR operations may only be conducted—
(1) With an ATC clearance;
(2) Clear of clouds;
(3) Except for helicopters, when flight visibility is at least 1 statute mile; and
(4) Except for helicopters, between sunrise and sunset (or in Alaska, when the sun is 6 degrees or more below the horizon) unless—
(i) The person being granted the ATC clearance meets the applicable requirements for instrument flight under part 61 of this chapter; and(ii) The aircraft is equipped as required in § 91.205(d).
(c) No person may take off or land an aircraft (other than a helicopter) under special VFR—
(1) Unless ground visibility is at least 1 statute mile; or
(2) If ground visibility is not reported, unless flight visibility is at least 1 statute mile. For the purposes of this paragraph, the term flight visibility includes the visibility from the cockpit of an aircraft in takeoff position if:
(i) The flight is conducted under this part 91; and
(ii) The airport at which the aircraft is located is a satellite airport that does not have weather reporting capabilities.
(d) The determination of visibility by a pilot in accordance with paragraph (c)(2) of this section is not an official weather report or an official ground visibility report.

b. Except as provided in 14 CFR Section 91.157, Special VFR Weather Minimums, no person may operate an aircraft beneath the ceiling under VFR within the lateral boundaries of controlled airspace designated to the surface for an airport when the ceiling is less than 1,000 feet. (See 14 CFR Section 91.155(c).)
So what if we have a satellite airport in class D that is clear but the main airport is IFR?
Do we need a special to get out of the satellite airport?
What about the ground visibility vs flight visibility question?
Does the ground visibility reported at the primary airport apply to the entire D airspace?
What about the class E extensions?
Do we need a special VFR to fly through those?

(2) If ground visibility is not reported, unless flight visibility is at least 1 statute mile. For the purposes of this paragraph, the term flight visibility includes the visibility from the cockpit of an aircraft in takeoff position if:
(i) The flight is conducted under this part 91; and
(ii) The airport at which the aircraft is located is a satellite airport that does not have weather reporting capabilities.
So at the satellite airport if we have 1 mile we can get the special
If we are at the primary (with wx reporting) we are stuck if we don’t have 1 mile
If we have 3 miles flight visibility we may fly through the extensions if we are n
ot operating “beneath the ceiling”
Have you ever heard an airliner call Grant Co for a special when passing over their class E extensions at 17,000?
Didn’t think so

Special VFR is available in C, D, E and some B
Check Part 91 Appendix D, Section 3 for those that don’t

There are 2 categories of airspace
Regulatory (class A, B, C, D, E, restricted and prohibited areas)
Nonregulatory (MOAs, warning areas, alert areas and controlled firing areas
Within these 2 categories there are 4 types:
Special use
Categories and types of airspace are dictated by
Complexity or density of aircraft movements
The nature of the operations conducted within the airspace
The level of safety required
The national and public interest

1. Vertical dimensions
2. Horizontal dimensions
3. Pilot requirements
4. Equipment requirements
5. Visibility requirements
6. How depicted on the sectional
7. Special requirements

18,000 to FL 600.
Includes Contiguous U.S. and out to 12 NM off the coast
Pilot must be IFR rated.
Plane must be IFR equipped.
No vis requirements.
Not marked on sectional.
Must have an IFR clearance

Must have clearance prior to operating
Only found around heavy traffic areas
Traffic separation is provided for VFR/IFR aircraft 19,000 lbs or less
Target resolution
500 ft vertical
Visual separation
For 19,000 lbs or more
1.5 miles lateral
500 ft vertical
Visual separation

Surface to 10,000 msl
Denoted by solid blue line
Pilot can be student in some private minimum in others
Mode C, ADS-B out and two way radio
Mode C and ADS-B out Veil
Aircraft certified without an electrical system don’t need mode C but must not enter B
For IFR operation must have a VOR or RNAV
3 miles vis clear of clouds
30NM mode C/ADS-B veil surrounds class B surface to 10,000 msl

Surface to 4000agl
Inner circle 5nm, outer circle from 5 to 10nm from 1200agl to 4000agl
Pilot can be lowest form
Mode C/ADS-B (in and above) and two way radio
3 mile vis 500 below 1000 above 2000 horizontal
Solid magenta line.
Must establish two way radio comm. Prior to entering.
2 way radio comm. Is established when they say call sign back.
Found around high traffic areas but less than class B airports.
Traffic separation
Visual separation
500 ft vertical
Target resolution

Surface to 2500agl
Average 4.4 nm based on rwy length
Pilot can be lowest form
Two way radio
3 mile vis 1000′ ceiling
Dashed blue line
Must establish two way radio comm. Prior to entering.
Some class D airports have surface based E extensions controlled by the tower.
If no weather reporting when tower closes, then it reverts to G.
If there is wx reporting then it reverts to E.
No separation provided for VFR

Surface, magenta dash line
Class E can start at 6 different altitudes:
700agl, magenta shading
1200agl blue shading
14,500msl not marked
Custom (zippers)
Picks up again at FL600
Ends at:
up to but not including 18,000
Pilot can be lowest form
No radio requirements when VFR
Less than 10,000msl; 3 miles 500 below, 1000 above, 2000 horizontal
Over 10,000msl; 5 miles 1000 below, 1000 above, 1 mile horizontal
No separation for VFR

If desired ops in surface E with weather less than 3 miles and 1000′ ceiling need special VFR otherwise none
Configured to include instrument approaches
Surface based; dashed magenta line
Federal Airways begin at 1,200 up to 18,000

700agl magenta shading towards the area designated
1200agl blue shading towards the area designated
Blue zippers designate special altitudes of floors on sec
14,500msl denoted by sharp edged blue shading forming a box
Class E Transition Area

Surface to 700agl
Or surface to 1200agl
Or surface to 14,500msl
Or surface to the zipper
Denoted by shading
Student pilot
No equipment requirements

Less than 1,200agl day 1 mile clear of clouds, night 3miles 512 BAH
More than 1,200 agl but less than 10,000msl day 1 mile 512BAH, night 3 miles 512BAH
More than 1,200agl and more than 10,000msl 5 miles 111BAH

Look for the class E depictions
By process of elimination any airspace that is not A,B,C,D, or E then it must be G
Class G Uncontrolled

1. Prohibited
Just don’t
2. Restricted
Sectional legend has times and altitudes of operation
3. Warning areas; 3nm outward from US coastline
Same kind of hazards as a restricted area
4. MOA
5. Alert areas
High volume of training or unusual aerial activity
6. Controlled firing areas
Ops suspended automatically, Helena Montana
7. National security areas
Voluntary like Hanford

Special Use Airspace

1. Airport advisory area
10nm FSS
2. MTR
4 numbers below 1500agl
3 numbers above 1500agl.
3. Temporary flight restrictions
By notam
Toxic gas, volcano, nuclear accident, hijackings ect.
4. Parachute jump ops
Contained in AFD
5. Published VFR routes through class B
VFR flyways, corridors, transition routes
6. Terminal Radar Service Area

Direction Finding Steer was a system using your VHF radio
You would call the FSS, hold the mic open for a given time and a bearing pointer would point to your location
You would then fly a known heading for a while and repeat the process, this would give them a second bearing
From this, they could then triangulate your position
They were decommissioned in 2007 the CONUS
There were 29 still in operation in Alaska that were going to be decommissioned in 2012
This service was listed in the A/FD

Covid-19 InformationRead More On Covid