CHAPTER 1

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BBCC Aviation Meteorology

AVIATION WEATHER SERVICES

Advisory Circular, AC 00-45

CHAPTER 1

AVIATION WX SERVICE PROGRAM

  • 3 sources for wx
  • 1. National Wx Service
  • 2. Department of Defense
  • 3. Federal Aviation Administration

NOAA

  • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA
  • NOAA is under the Department of Commerce
  • Conducts research and gathers data about the global oceans, atmosphere, space, and sun, and applies this knowledge to science and service which touch the lives of all Americans
  • Under NOAA is the NWS

National Environmental, Satellite, Data and Information Service (NESDIS)

  • This outfit supports the NWS by providing satellite data
  • They are basically a clearing house for all the satellite data that comes in

National Wx Service NWS

  • Collects and analyzes meteorological and hydrological data and prepares forecasts on a national, hemispheric, and global scale.
  • Provides weather data, forecasts and warnings

National Wx Service NWS

  • NWS has ten separate National Weather Service Offices each with its own mission.

National Wx Service NWS

  • National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)
  • All global meteorology data is collected and analyzed by these guys
  • There are 9 district centers under the NCEP umbrella

–NCEP Central Operations

–Aviation Weather Center

–Weather Prediction Center

–Storm Prediction Center

–National Hurricane Center

–Space Weather Prediction Center

–Alaskan Aviation Weather Unit

–Center Weather Service Unit

–Weather Forecast Office

AVIATION WEATHER CENTER (AWC)

  • Located in Kansas City, Missouri
  • Issues warnings, forecasts, and analyses of hazardous weather for aviation interests.
  • Identifies existing or imminent weather hazards to aircraft in flight and creates warnings for transmission to the aviation community.
  • www.aviationweather.gov

AVIATION WEATHER CENTER (AWC)

  • They produce

–(AIRMET) Airman’s Meteorological Information

–Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET), and Convective SIGMETs) for the contiguous 48 states

–Significant Weather Prog Charts (low, middle, and high)

–National Convective Weather Forecast

–Current Icing Product

–Forecast Icing Product

–Graphical Turbulence Guidance

–Ceiling and Visibility Analysis

WEATHER FORECAST OFFICE (WFO) NWS

  • Issues various public and aviation forecast and weather warnings.
  • Issue (TAFs) Terminal Aviation Forecasts
  • Some issue Airport Weather Warnings, and Soaring Forecasts
  • In Guam and Hawaii also issue AIRMETS AND SIGMETS and route forecasts.

WEATHER FORECAST OFFICE (WFO)

  • The Alaskan and Hawaiian branches do more than the normal WFO
  • The Alaskan Weather Unit (AAWU) issues its own SIGMETs, AIRMETs, Graphical FAs and Sig Prog Charts
  • In Hawaii, same type of setup in addition though they are the Pacific Hurricane Center
  • FAA
  • Aviation services are provided for pilots through various facilities

–Air Traffic Control Systems Command Center

–Air Route Traffic Control Center

–Airport Traffic Control Tower

–Terminal Radar Approach Control

–Flight Service Stations

FAA

  • While the FAA is in control of the (FSSs) Flight Service Stations
  • Leidos took over the FSS duties as a private contractor
  • 3 hub locations in Leesburg Va, Fort Worth Tx, and Prescott Az
  • The FSS provides more aviation weather service than any other government outlet.

FSS

  • Provide pilot weather briefings
  • En route weather
  • Receive and process IFR and VFR flight plans
  • Relay ATC clearances
  • Issue Notices to Airmen (NOTAMs).
  • They also provide assistance to lost aircraft and aircraft in emergency situations, and conduct VFR search and rescue services

SAFETY/Briefings

WX BRIEFINGS

  • 3 types:

–1. Standard

–2. Abbreviated

–3. Outlook

  • Online briefings are archived for 15 days
  • Voice briefing recordings are retained for 45 days

BRIEFINGS

  • List of facts to give briefer for a briefing (pg1-6 para1.3.1):
  • #1. Standard, Abbreviated, or Outlook briefing
  • #2. VFR or IFR
  • #3. Aircraft ID and Type
  • #4. Departure point
  • #5. ETD
  • #6. Altitude
  • #7. Route
  • #8. Destination
  • #9. ETE
  • Memorize these

WX BRIEFING

  • 1. Standard Briefing
  • When the full wx picture is desired
  • So what should you expect to get?

WX BRIEFING

  • Adverse conditions
  • VFR flight not recommended
  • Weather synopsis
  • Current Wx
  • En Route Forecast
  • Destination Forecast
  • Winds and Temps Aloft
  • NOTAMS
  • Prohibited and Special Flight Rules Areas
  • ATC Delays
  • Other Information

WX BRIEFING

  • 2. Abbreviated Briefing
  • Briefer needs to know when your last briefing took place so no omissions
  • Designed to supplement an earlier briefing
  • User must request
  • Questions about reports and so forth
  • Request specific info

WX BRIEFING

  • 3. Outlook
  • Provided when departure is 6 hours or more in the future
  • Very general
  • Follow up this one with a standard brief closer to departure time

WHAT SHOULD YOU GET???

  • Current conditions at current location and destination – METAR
  • Forecast wx at current location and destination – TAF
  • Enroute wx
  • Winds Aloft
  • Notams

SELF BRIEFINGS

  • 1800wxbrief.com is a complete and official wx briefing

–You need to create an account

https://www.1800wxbrief.com/Website/#!/

  • For quick and easy info visit Aviation Weather . gov

https://www.aviationweather.gov

  • Be aware this is not an official briefing
  • There is no official log of your briefing
  • Could be a major drawback if you have a problem in flight

TELEPHONE INFORMATION BRIEFING SERVICE (TIBS)

  • Is provided by Automated FSSs and provides continuous telephone recordings of meteorological and/or aeronautical information.
  • TIBS shall contain area and or route briefings, airspace procedures, and special announcements, if applicable
  • Should also contain METARs, TAFs and winds aloft (normally a feature with 1-800 wx brief (say TIBS instead of briefer or press 3)

TELEPHONE INFORMATION BRIEFING SERVICE (TIBS)

  • Provides at least 4 route and/ or area briefings.
  • Should also encompass a 50 NM radius.
  • Provided 24 hours a day.
  • Recordings are updated as conditions change. Or when ever the material is updated.
  • DOES NOT CONSTITUTE A BRIEFING

HIWAS

  • Hazardous Inflight Weather Advisory Service (HIWAS)
  • Broadcasted over navaids (certain VORs)
  • Continuous broadcast of inflight weather advisories such as SIGMETs, AIRMETs, and urgent PIREPs
  • Broadcast over a defined area within 150 NM of HIWAS outlets. 24 hours a day
  • An announcement will be made if there are no hazardous weather advisories.

HIWAS

  • The broadcast includes –
  • A statement of introduction including the appropriate areas and recording time
  • A summary of inflight weather advisories
  • A request for PIREPs
  • A recommendation to contact FSS for additional details concerning the hazardous weather.

HIWAS

  • Once a HIWAS broadcast is updated, an announcement will be made once on all communication/NAVAID frequencies except emergency, and EN Route Flight Advisory Service.
  • Look on your sectional for participating NAVAIDs

Flight Information Service-Broadcast (FIS-B)

  • Ground based information through the ADS-B UAT network

Flight Information Service-Broadcast (FIS-B)

Flight Information Service-Broadcast (FIS-B)

  • This service provides textual and graphical wx products right to your cockpit
  • Text: METAR and SPECI;
  • Text: PIREP;
  • Text: Winds and Temperatures Aloft;
  • Text: TAF;
  • Text: NOTAM Distant and Flight Data Center;
  • Text/Graphic: AIRMET;
  • Text/Graphic: SIGMET;
  • Text/Graphic: Convective SIGMET;
  • Text/Graphic: SUA;
  • Text/Graphic: TFR NOTAM; and
  • Graphic: Next generation weather radar (NEXRAD) Composite Reflectivity Products (Regional and National).
  • Pretty much all the good stuff – free

Flight Information Service-Broadcast (FIS-B)

  • Update Intervals

ADS-B

  • Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast
  • Need a data link in your plane to use this
  • A/C ID, position, altitude and velocity once a second are broadcast to ATC
  • Can get Wx and other junk though this
  • Wave of the future
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