Lesson 19 ADM, CRM and Review of Cross Country Planning

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Ear and Sinus Block

This happens when the Eustachian tube gets blocked and the pressure will not equalize

Symptoms:

Very painful in ears or behind the eyes

Plugged ears or sinuses

Effects:

incapacitation in some circumstances

Eardrum can rupture

Corrective Actions:

Use the Valsalva Maneuver

Descend very slowly or climb

Menthol inhaler

Menthol cough drops will sometimes work

Physiology

alveoli

hemoglobin

carbon dioxide

Hypoxia lack of oxygen to the body

Oxygen partial pressure

Different for different people

5000 feet at night

12,000 during daytime

12,500 to 14,000 above 15,000 oxygen rules

Hypoxia

Symptoms:

peripheral vision starts to grey out

cyanosis

Feeling of euphoria

Tingling in the extremities

Effects:

Loss of judgment

Unconsciousness

Corrective Actions:

Go on Oxygen

Descend to a lower altitude

Hypoxia

Time of Useful Consciousness

18,000 20 – 30 Minutes

22,000 10 Minutes

25,000 3 – 5 Minutes

28,000 2 – 3 Minutes

30,000 1 – 2 Minutes

35,000 30 Seconds

40,000 9 – 12 Seconds

43,000 9 – 12 Seconds

50,000 9 – 12 Seconds

Hyperventilation

Abnormal increase in the volume of air breathed in and out of the lungs which causes the body to blow off excessive carbon dioxide

Symptoms:

Similar to hypoxia

Effects:

Similar to hypoxia

Corrective Actions:

Set O2 system to deliver 100% O2 just in case it is hypoxia

Slow the breathing rate

Do the checklist out loud

Sing the Star Spangle Banner

Carbon Monoxide poisoning

CO attaches to the hemoglobin more readily than O2

Takes a Hyperbolic chamber to force the O2 back into the blood

Symptoms:

Similar to hypoxia except finger nail beds and lips will turn red

Effects:

Similar to hypoxia except add death to that list

Corrective Actions:

Close all heat valves

Set O2 system to deliver 100% O2 just in case it is hypoxia

Open window try to ventilate the cabin

Descend to a lower altitude

SCUBA Diving

The bends

12 hours for flights below 8,000 and no dives requiring a controlled ascent

24 hours for flights above 8,000 or dives requiring a controlled ascent

Spatial Disorientation

This happens when your kinesthetic inputs disagree with what is really happening with the plane

The fluid in your semi-circular canals gets to sloshing around

Pay attention and believe your flight instruments

Night Vision

Your eye is made up of Rods and Cones

Rods are light receptive nerves that sense peripheral vision and shades of grey

Cones are light receptive nerves that sense color and clear visual acuity

It takes 30 minutes for a chemical called visual purple to build.

After 10 minutes of darkness your eyes are 10,000 times more sensitive

After 30 minutes they are 100,000 time more sensitive

Fitness For Flight

IM SAFE

I Illness

M Medication

S Stress

A Alcohol

F Fatigue

E Emotion

Emergencies

Compound emergencies are emergencies in quick succession

Verify information with your instrumentation

Follow the manufacturers recommended emergency checklist

Emergencies

When you know it is out of the ordinary it is probably time to take action

Always choose the course of action that will give you the most options

When all else fails undo what you just did

Emergencies

The emergency frequency is 121.5

ELT’s transmit on this frequency for up to 48 hours after a 5 to 7 g shock

The pilot should turn on the switch if possible after crashing to insure operation

Wear what you would like to spend the night in

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