CHAPTER 1

Font Size: Larger /Smaller

BBCC Aviation Meteorology

AVIATION WEATHER SERVICES

Advisory Circular, AC 00-45

CHAPTER 1

AVIATION WX SERVICE PROGRAM 

AVIATION WX SERVICE PROGRAM

  • 3 sources for wx
  • 1. National Wx Service
  • 2. Department of Defense
  • 3. Federal Aviation Administration

NOAA

  • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA
  • NOAA is under the Department of Commerce
  • Conducts research and gathers data about the global oceans, atmosphere, space, and sun, and applies this knowledge to science and service which touch the lives of all Americans
  • Under NOAA is the NWS

National Environmental, Satellite, Data and Information Service (NESDIS)

  • This outfit supports the NWS by providing satellite data
  • They are basically a clearing house for all the satellite data that comes in

National Wx Service NWS

  • Collects and analyzes meteorological and hydrological data and prepares forecasts on a national, hemispheric, and global scale.
  • Provides weather data, forecasts and warnings

National Wx Service NWS

  • NWS has ten separate National Weather Service Offices each with its own mission.

National Wx Service NWS

National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)

  • All global meteorology data is collected and analyzed by these guys
  • There are 9 district centers under the NCEP umbrella
  • –NCEP Central Operations
  • –Aviation Weather Center
  • –Weather Prediction Center
  • –Storm Prediction Center
  • –National Hurricane Center
  • –Space Weather Prediction Center
  • –Alaskan Aviation Weather Unit
  • –Center Weather Service Unit
  • –Weather Forecast Office

AVIATION WEATHER CENTER (AWC)

  • Located in Kansas City, Missouri
  • Issues warnings, forecasts, and analyses of hazardous weather for aviation interests.
  • Identifies existing or imminent weather hazards to aircraft in flight and creates warnings for transmission to the aviation community.
  • www.aviationweather.gov

AVIATION WEATHER CENTER (AWC)

  • They produce
  • –(FA’s) Area forecasts in-flight weather advisories
  • –(AIRMET) Airman’s Meteorological Information
  • –Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET), and Convective SIGMETs) for the contiguous 48 states
  • –Significant Weather Prog Charts (low, middle, and high)
  • –Collaborative Convective Forecast Product,
  • –National Convective Weather Forecast
  • –Current Icing Product
  • –Forecast Icing Potential.

WEATHER FORECAST OFFICE (WFO) NWS

  • Issues various public and aviation forecast and weather warnings.
  • Issue (TAFs) Terminal Aviation Forecasts and (TWEBs) Transcribed weather broadcasts. Some issue Airport Weather Warnings, and Soaring Forecasts
  • In Guam and Hawaii also issue FA’s AIRMETS AND SIGMETS and route forecasts.

WEATHER FORECAST OFFICE (WFO)

  • The Alaskan and Hawaiian branches do more than the normal WFO
  • The Alaskan Weather Unit (AAWU) issues its own international SIGMET and domestic FAs and AIRMETs
  • In Hawaii, same type of setup in addition though they are the Pacific Hurricane Center

FAA

  • Aviation services are provided for pilots through various facilities
  • –Air Traffic Control Systems Command Center
  • –Air Route Traffic Control Center
  • –Airport Traffic Control Tower
  • –Terminal Radar Approach Control
  • –Flight Service Stations

FAA

  • While the FAA is in control of the (FSSs) Flight Service Stations
  • Lockheed Martin took over the FSS duties as a private contractor
  • There are 6 locations around the U.S.
  • 3 hub locations in Ashburn Va, Fort Worth Tx, and Prescott Az
  • Others include Raleigh Nc and Miami Fl
  • Provide more aviation weather service than any other government outlet.

FSS

  • Provide pilot weather briefings
  • En route weather
  • Receive and process IFR and VFR flight plans
  • Relay ATC clearances
  • Issue Notices to Airmen (NOTAMs).
  • They also provide assistance to lost aircraft and aircraft in emergency situations, and conduct VFR search and rescue services

SAFETY/Briefings

WX BRIEFINGS

  • 3 types:
  • –1. Standard
  • –2. Abbreviated
  • –3. Outlook
  • Online briefings are archived for 15 days
  • Voice briefing recordings are retained for 45 days

BRIEFINGS

  • List of facts to give briefer for a briefing (pg1-6 para1.3.1):
  • #1. Standard, Abbreviated, or Outlook briefing
  • #2. VFR or IFR
  • #3. Aircraft ID & Type or pilot’s last name
  • #4. Departure point
  • #5. ETD
  • #6. Altitude
  • #7. Route
  • #8. Destination
  • #9. ETE

WX BRIEFING

  • 1. Standard Briefing
  • When the full wx picture is desired
  • So what should you expect to get?

WX BRIEFING

  • Adverse conditions
  • VFR flight not recommended
  • Weather synopsis
  • Current Wx
  • En Route Forecast
  • Destination Forecast
  • Winds and Temps Aloft
  • NOTAMS
  • Prohibited and Special Flight Rules Areas
  • ATC Delays
  • Other Information

WX BRIEFING

  • 2. Abbreviated Briefing
  • Briefer needs to know when your last briefing took place so no omissions
  • Designed to supplement an earlier briefing
  • User must request
  • Questions about reports and so forth
  • Request specific info

WX BRIEFING

  • 3. Outlook
  • Provided when departure is 6 hours or more in the future
  • Very general
  • Follow up this one with a standard brief closer to departure time

WHAT SHOULD YOU GET???

  • Current conditions at current location and destination – METAR
  • Forecast wx at current location and destination – TAF
  • Enroute wx
  • Winds Aloft
  • Notams

SELF BRIEFINGS

  • DUATS is a complete and official wx briefing
  • –Need a medical cert number to create an account
  • –You need to do this
  • www.duatsii.com
  • For quick and easy info visit Aviation Weather . gov
  • https://www.aviationweather.gov/
  • Be aware this is not an official briefing
  • There is no official log of your briefing
  • Could be a major drawback if you have a problem in flight

TELEPHONE INFORMATION BRIEFING SERVICE (TIBS)

  • Is provided by Automated FSSs and provides continuous telephone recordings of meteorological and/or aeronautical information.
  • TIBS shall contain area and or route briefings, airspace procedures, and special announcements, if applicable
  • Should also contain METARs, TAFs and winds aloft (normally a feature with 1-800 wx brief (say TIBS instead of briefer or press 3)
  • Washington press 92
  • Eastern WA press 12

TELEPHONE INFORMATION BRIEFING SERVICE (TIBS)

  • Provides at least 4 route and/ or area briefings.
  • Should also encompass a 50 NM radius.
  • Provided 24 hours a day.
  • Recordings are updated as conditions change. Or when ever the material is updated.
  • DOES NOT CONSTITUTE A BRIEFING

TIBS

  • Includes 12 items
  • –Introduction
  • –Adverse conditions
  • –VFR not recommended
  • –Synopsis
  • –Current conditions
  • –Density Altitude
  • –En route forecast
  • –Winds aloft
  • –Request for PIREPs
  • –NOTAM info
  • –Military Training activity
  • –Closing statement
  • Airport Facility Directory lists TIBS telephone numbers for AFSS briefings.
  • A touch tone phone is necessary to access.
  • All usually now can be access with 1-800 wx brief

HIWAS

  • Hazardous Inflight Weather Advisory Service (HIWAS)
  • Broadcasted over navaids (certain VORs)
  • Continuous broadcast of inflight weather advisories such as SIGMETs, AIRMETs, and urgent PIREPs
  • Broadcast over a defined area within 150 NM of HIWAS outlets. 24 hours a day
  • An announcement will be made if there are no hazardous weather advisories.

HIWAS

  • The broadcast includes –
  • A statement of introduction including the appropriate areas and recording time
  • A summary of inflight weather advisories
  • A request for PIREPs
  • A recommendation to contact FSS for additional details concerning the hazardous weather.

HIWAS

  • Once a HIWAS broadcast is updated, an announcement will be made once on all communication/NAVAID frequencies except emergency, and EN Route Flight Advisory Service.
  • Look on your sectional for participating NAVAIDs

Flight Information Service-Broadcast (FIS-B)

  • Ground based information through the ADS-B UAT network

Flight Information Service-Broadcast (FIS-B)

Flight Information Service-Broadcast (FIS-B)

  • This service provides textual and graphical wx products right to your cockpit
  • Text: METAR and SPECI;
  • Text: PIREP;
  • Text: Winds and Temperatures Aloft;
  • Text: TAF;
  • Text: NOTAM Distant and Flight Data Center;
  • Text/Graphic: AIRMET;
  • Text/Graphic: SIGMET;
  • Text/Graphic: Convective SIGMET;
  • Text/Graphic: SUA;
  • Text/Graphic: TFR NOTAM; and
  • Graphic: Next generation weather radar (NEXRAD) Composite Reflectivity Products (Regional and National).
  • Pretty much all the good stuff – free

Flight Information Service-Broadcast (FIS-B)

  • Update Intervals

ADS-B

  • Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast
  • Need a data link in your plane to use this
  • A/C ID, position, altitude and velocity once a second are broadcast to ATC
  • Can get Wx and other junk though this
  • Wave of the future

 

Print Friendly, PDF & Email