Review and Hazardous Attitudes

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BBCC Aviation Meteorology

Aeronautical Decision Making

AERONAUTICAL DECISION MAKING (ADM)
First Part:
The ability to search for and establish the relevance of all available information regarding a flying situation to specify alternative courses of action, and to determine expected outcomes from each alternative.

AERONAUTICAL DECISION MAKING (ADM)
Second Part:
The motivation to choose and authoritatively execute a suitable course of action within the time frame permitted by the situation.
The word “suitable” means an alternative consistent with societal norms and “action” includes no action, some action or action to seek more information.

THE FIVE INGREDIENTS
Pilot – ability, health, fatigue, attitude, stress, all effect decision making
Aircraft – performance, nav capabilities, deicing, airworthiness
Environment – VFR, MVFR, IFR, density altitude
Operation – interaction between the variables of the 3 above
Situation – situational awareness, do you know what’s up

THE FIVE INGREDIENTS
Page 12 The flow chart
Attitude management – guard against your hazardous attitude
Stress management – identify and cope
Crew Resource management – use the “crew of one” technique
Headwork Response – make good decisions with knowledge (the more you know the better the decision)

RISK MANAGEMENT
Almost everything you do involves risk
From driving to eating at the chow hall
Let’s take a look at risk using the “5 ingredients”

RISK MANAGEMENT (PILOT)
Things that increase risk are called Stressors
Physical stress
Noise, high temperature, high humidity, lack of O2
Physiological stress
Fatigue, out of shape, not eating, sickness.

RISK MANAGEMENT (PILOT)
Psychological stress
Social or emotional problems, fired from job, boyfriend/girlfriend trouble,
All of these can raise the level of risk through inadequate Aeronautical Decision Making (ADM)

RISK MANAGEMENT (AIRCRAFT)
Equipment
Horsepower, radios, fuel, airworthiness
Will the airplane handle what you want to do with it?

RISK MANAGEMENT (ENVIRONMENT)
Weather is the highest reason behind fatal aircraft accidents.
In the personal flying category
Nearly 87% of all accidents listed wx as a causal factor
Nearly 85% of all fatal accidents involve wx

RISK MANAGEMENT (OPERATION)
Pressure exerted by passengers can be formidable
Do you have a demanding boss?
Do you have a life or death flight e.g. Heart-flight
All of these operational aspects effect ADM

ACCIDENT STATISTICS
ACCIDENT RATES
Through 1974 to 2000 accident rate has fallen fairly steadily to about 5.96 accidents per 100,000 hours of flight time.
The most common accident cause is pilot related.
Higher accident rates in spring and summer.

ACCIDENT RATES
Fixed gear aircraft have the highest number of accidents followed by retractable and multiengine.
For year 2000 total accidents were:
Fixed Gear had 861/136 fatal
S.E. Retracts had 189/56 fatal
Multiengine had 111/40 fatal

ACCIDENT RATES
The type of operation most likely to involve an accident was:
Personal Flying with 67.3%
Instruction was second with 13.1% (included solo operations)
Followed by Aerial Application at 6%

ACCIDENT RATES
Mechanical failure resulted in only 16.9% of the total accidents.
Engine failure led the list at 48.2%
Landing Gear/Brakes at 22.9%
Fuel system at 11.4%
Airframe 8.9% but this category accounted for 35.7% of the fatal accidents.
So if you did have airframe failure you are in serious trouble.

ACCIDENT RATES
Weather accidents are most likely fatal.
VFR into IMC was the highest causal factor with 70.8%
Lost control in IMC was 4.2%
Severe Weather accidents was 25%
If the weather was bad (IMC) and it was night the rate jumped to 64.3%
Proving this to be the most deadly possible flight environment.

SELF ASSESSMENT
Limit your risk exposure by determining which hazardous attitude you lean toward
Lets take a closer look at the 5 hazardous attitudes

ARMII
These will be on your private oral!
ANTI-AUTHORITY
“Don’t tell me”
Rules are for squirrels
ATC clearances
FARs

ANTI-AUTHORITY
ANTIDOTE
Follow the rules. They are usually right.

RESIGNATION
“What’s the use?”
This is where the person just gives up
Oh well
They may believe that luck is their co pilot
The situation overwhelms them and by failing to act have condemned themselves

RESIGNATION
ANTIDOTE
I’m not helpless. I can make a difference.

MACHO
“I can do it”
I’m hot poo poo
These pilots think they have superior skill
Cocky, know it all types
Women are just as susceptible as men

MACHO
ANTIDOTE
Taking chances is foolish

IMPULSIVITY
“Do something… quickly”
Rush into a course of action without thinking first
The need to do something – anything
It overwhelms good ADM principles

IMPULSIVITY
ANTIDOTE
Slow down, think before you act or speak.

INVULNERABILITY
“It won’t happen to me”
Accidents are what happen to others – not me
These types feel they will never be involved in a mishap

INVULNERABILITY
ANTIDOTE
It can happen to me

WHAT TO DO?
Most decision making occurs on the ground before the flight
IMSAFE checklist
Do you have stressors that may affect ADM?
If you do, you are starting off with a handicap

WHAT TO DO?
Usually accidents occur after a series of bad judgement calls add up
The “domino” effect takes over
Read accident reports
In many of the accidents you can see the accident coming
Practice good risk management techniques

WHAT TO DO?
Be pessimistic, look for the other shoe to drop
Remember Aviate, Navigate, Communicate
Try undoing the last thing you did
Always select the course of action that gives you the most options
Don’t box yourself into a corner
Always fly inside your envelope
Don’t get outside your comfort level

WHAT TO DO?
Every pilot has a little voice
Listen to it!
The stall horn listen to it! It is telling you something

What To Do?
Use the 3P risk management cycle
Perceive, Process, Perform
Perceive with PAVE
Process with CARE
Perform as a TEAM

What To Do?
PAVE
Pilot – Experience, currency, recency, physical and emotional condition
Aircraft – Fuel reserves, experience in type, aircraft performance, aircraft equipment
enVironment – Airport conditions, weather, runways, lighting , terrain
External Pressures- Allowance for delays, diversions, alternative plans, personal equipment

What To Do?
CARE
Consequences – Continuously evaluate the consequences of hazards that arise while en route
Alternatives – Continuously evaluate all available options and alternatives
Reality – Acknowledge and address the reality of your situation and avoid wishful thinking
Exte
rnal Pressures – Be mindful of external pressures especially tendencies toward get home itis

What To Do?
TEAM
Transfer Risk – Should this risk decision be transferred to someone else for guidance?
Eliminate Risk – Is there a way to eliminate the hazard?
Accept Risk – Do the benefits of accepting risk outweigh the costs?
Mitigate Risk – What options do you have that can lessen the impact of the risk?

STRESS PROFILE
TASK REQUIREMENT VS PILOT CAPABILITIES

WHAT TO DO?
Make a competent Go No Go decision based on experience
When it goes in the toilet don’t panic rely on your training
Don’t reinvent the wheel
Set your own personal wx minimums, change them as you get more hours
Knowledge is power

WHAT TO DO?
Wx is by far the subject most pilots will say is their weakest subject
Endeavor to learn more about wx it will save your life one day
 

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