Takeoff and Departure Procedures

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Instrument

Takeoffs Start On the Ground
Terminal Procedures Publication
Airport Facility Directory
Sectional Chart

TPP
Covered under part 97
Comes out every 56 days
Supplement comes out every 56 days
These two pubs alternate on a 28 day cycle
So one or the other comes out every 28 days

Surface Movement Safety
Airport diagrams are included in both the TPP and the A/FD
Surface Movement Guidance Control System (SMGCS)
Low visibility taxi plans under 1200 RVR
Part 91 has no vis limitation

Surface Movement Guidance Control System (SMGCS)
Enhancements include:
Stop bar lights
Taxiway centerline lead on lights
Runway guard lights
Geographic position markings
Clearance bar lights
3 in pavement yellow lights at the hold line
Follow Me truck
Read AIM chapter 2
Several questions on the AKT cover markings, signs and airport diagrams

SMGCS
Advanced Surface Movement Guidance Control System (A-SMGCS)
This system uses surface radar and your transponder
Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport (Alaska), Andrews Air Force Base (Maryland), Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport (Kentucky), Cleveland Hopkins Airport (Ohio), Kansas City International Airport (Missouri), Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport (Louisiana), Pittsburgh International Airport (Pennsylvania), Portland International Airport (Oregon), and San Francisco International Airport (California)

Standard Takeoff Minimums
For part 91 there are no minimums
For part 121, 135
Aircraft having 2 engines or less, 1SM
Aircraft having more than 2 engines, ½ SM
Good judgment would dictate using these minimums under 91
Especially if using the ODP
91.175 and the first page of the Takeoff Minimums in the TPP

Nonstandard Takeoff Minimums
Listed in the front of the TPP
Look on the plate for the triangle T
This indicates nonstandard takeoff mins apply

Visibility Terms
Visibility – be able to see stuff
Given in SM or feet
Prevailing visibility – greatest vis through ½ of the horizon circle SM or fraction of SM
Runway visibility value – used in lieu of prevailing visibility, determined by transmissometer
Tower visibility – prevailing vis given from the tower

Visibility Terms
Runway Visual Range RVR – horizontal range as seen down the runway
Taken by a transmissometer
Reported in 100’s of feet
Used over R V V and prevailing vis
Used for determining mins for that runway
Used as the primary means for 135 & 121
4 types:
1. Touchdown RVR
2. Mid RVR
3. Rollout RVR
4. Far End RVR

Nonstandard Takeoff Minimums
BAKER CITY, OR
BAKER CITY MUNI (BKE)
AMDT 2 10322 (FAA)
TAKEOFF MINIMUMS: Rwy 8,std. w/ min climb of 460′ per NM to 6900, or 3700-3 for climb in visual conditions. Rwy 13,std. w/ min climb of 470′ per NM to 6900, or 3700-3 for climb in visual conditions. Rwy 17,N/A-Environmental. Rwy 26,std. w/ min climb of 400′ per NM to 7200, or 3700-3 for climb in visual conditions. Rwys 31,35, std. w/ min climb of 400′ per NM to 6900, or 3700-3 for climb in visual conditions.
DEPARTURE PROCEDURE: Rwy 8, climb heading 081° to 6900, then climbing left turn to BKE VOR/DME R-066 to BKE VOR/DME and hold, continue climb in BKE VOR/DME holding pattern (Hold S, right turns, 338° inbound) to cross BKE VOR/DME at or above MEA/MCA for route of flight, or for climb in visual conditions, cross BKE VOR/DME at or above 6900, then climb-in-hold to at or above MEA/MCA for route of flight. Rwy 13, climb heading 126° to 6900, then climbing left turn to BKE VOR/DME R-095 to BKE VOR/DME and hold, continue climb in BKE VOR/DME holding pattern (Hold S, right turns, 338° inbound) to cross BKE VOR/DME at or above MEA/MCA for route of flight, or for climb in visual conditions, cross BKE VOR/DME at or above 6900, then climb-in-hold to at or above MEA/MCA for route of flight.

Groundspeed under rate
Fpm outside wheel
Fpnm inside wheel

Standard Alternate Airport Minimums
Determine if an alternate is needed 91.169
Look at the weather at your primary destination
123 rule
1142 rule for helicopters?
For aircraft other than helicopters.
For at least 1 hour before and for 1 hour after the estimated time of arrival, the ceiling will be at least 2,000 feet above the airport elevation and the visibility will be at least 3 statute miles.
(ii) For helicopters. At the estimated time of arrival and for 1 hour after the estimated time of arrival, the ceiling will be at least 1,000 feet above the airport elevation, or at least 400 feet above the lowest applicable approach minima, whichever is higher, and the visibility will be at least 2 statute miles.
If these requirements are not met you need to file an alternate
Let’s look at wx requirements at the alternate

Standard Alternate Airport Minimums
(c) IFR alternate airport weather minima.
Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may include an alternate airport in an IFR flight plan unless appropriate weather reports or weather forecasts, or a combination of them, indicate that, at the estimated time of arrival at the alternate airport, the ceiling and visibility at that airport will be at or above the following weather minima:
(1) If an instrument approach procedure has been published in part 97 of this chapter, or a special instrument approach procedure has been issued by the Administrator to the operator, for that airport, the following minima:
(A) For a precision approach procedure. Ceiling 600 feet and visibility 2 statute miles.
(B) For a nonprecision approach procedure. Ceiling 800 feet and visibility 2 statute miles.
(ii) For helicopters: Ceiling 200 feet above the minimum for the approach to be flown, and visibility at least 1 statute mile but never less than the minimum visibility for the approach to be flown, and
(2) If no instrument approach procedure has been published in part 97 of this chapter and no special instrument approach procedure has been issued by the Administrator to the operator, for the alternate airport, the ceiling and visibility minima are those allowing descent from the MEA, approach, and landing under basic VFR.

Nonstandard Alternate Airport Minimums
Located in the front of the TPP
Look on the plate for the triangle A
This indicates nonstandard alternates apply

Nonstandard Alternate Minimums

Alternate Airport Minimum Rules
Some airports may not be used as an alternate
In those cases you will see N/A
GPS is not authorized as a means of approach at an alternate airport
You may not list as your alternate a GPS approach if you have a TSO-129 receiver
If you have WAAS however, you may list a GPS approach if the N/A has been removed

Departure Procedures
2 kinds of DP’s
ODP Obstacle Departure Procedures
SID Standard Instrument Departures
If no obstacles exist a procedure is not published
MWH is an example

Criteria
Cross the departure end of runway at least 35 feet above DER elevation
Climb to 400 feet above DER elevation before turning
Climb gradient of 200 fpnm
More to come on this in the TERPs class
Refer to the IPH and the AIM 5-2-8

ODP’s
These just provide obstacle clearance
No ATC required climb performance or noise abatement
Designed to provide the least restrictive path to the enroute structure
These babies are published when something pokes up into the 40:1 departure obstacle clearance surface OCS
Most are textual in description, however they are adding graphic procedures slowly but surely
If they have a graphic, “OBSTACLE” will be in the title
Located in the front of the TPP in the takeoff mins section

ODP’s
Pilot’s responsibility know about and follow the ODP
If you’re part 91 they are optional
Judgment dictates this is a good idea
You may file a graphic ODP in the flight plan using the computer code in the title
You may also add “will depart EAT RWY 30 via textual ODP” in the remarks section of the flight plan

ODP Traps
It is possible to get into an airport you can’t get out of
For this reason checking required climb rates against aircraft performance is a part of your go/no go process
Close in obstacles may require further planning for avoidance
Think high density altitude situations here
Possible engine failure in twins

SID’s
These are ATC developed
Usually in busy areas
Reduces controller workload
Increases traffic flow
Noise abatement
Seamless integration with enroute structure
“No SID”
Put in remarks section of the flight plan if:
You can’t comply
You don’t have the charted procedure
You just don’t feel like flying a SID today

SID’s
SID’s are always charted graphically
They are located with the plates for that airport
They include:
Departure route
Nav fixes
Transition routes
Required altitudes
Speaking of Transition Routes
This is the chunk that gets you from the end of the SID to the enroute structure
Typically they fan out and you file the route that gets you on your way (per the clearance of course)
ATC may also assign a transition route

SID’s
The radar SID
Has no transition published
Contains initial departure instructions including heading and altitude
Often has lost com directions
With any SID pay attention to the notes

SID Altitudes
Mandated 4 ways:
1. mandatory altitudes
2. minimum altitudes
3. maximum altitudes
4. block altitudes

SID
Accept or Reject – the decision is yours
Can you comply in the performance department?
Navigational accuracy?
Do you have possession?
Do you understand it?

DP’s By Equipment
Non-RNAV
RNAV
RNAV 1 – TSO-129 GPS +or- 1NM 95% of the time
RNAV 2 – Not more than +or- 2NM 95% of the time
RNP Required Navigation Performance
Denoted RNP-1 usually curved paths on the depiction

Radar
Radar Departures
If no established DP exits, you may get one of these
If you filed “No SID” you may get one of these
If you’re a jerk and made the controller mad you may get one of these
Be ready for the “resume own navigation” call
Radar Contact doesn’t mean your good on terrain separation
Until you start receiving vectors, you are responsible for terrain separation
Controllers will use the minimum vector altitude MVA once they start taking over navigation

Diverse Vector Area
ATC may take you below the MVA if there is a DVA established
Not published to you as a pilot
ATC instructions take precedent over the ODP
Exist at busy airports

Visual Climb Over Airport
Just what it says, you have to be in VMC
Handy if there are obstacles
Published in the Takeoff Mins section of the TPP
Gots to tell ATC when you wants them

Noise Abatement
Usually a note on the chart will indicate that it’s for noise
Often times only apply to jets and/or turboprops
May have nonsensical headings and procedures for your route of flight

Worst in the Nation
Departing a Towered Airport
If clearance delivery frequency is published use it to get your clearance
If none is published you may use ground control to get your clearance
Acknowledge your clearance using a readback
Request an amendment if you didn’t get what you need or it doesn’t make sense
Advise ATC immediately if you can’t comply
This includes climb gradients
Pre-taxi clearance allows you to call within 10 minutes of taxi
Pre-departure clearance is a clearance via data link
Comes from your companies’ dispatch

Departing a Non-Towered Airport
What do you do if the tower is closed?
What if there is no tower?
What if there is no runway?
File at least 30 minutes in advance
If it’s surface based E, there should be a RCO nearby to get your clearance directly from Center
Some unicom operators (FBO) are licensed to give out clearances
If not call FSS on the phone, they can relay your clearance to you
Often times these come with a “void time”
Your clearance is good until that time
Keeps from clogging up the airspace while Center waits to hear from you
You may also depart VFR and get your clearance airborne
Beware if the wx is crappy you must maintain VFR until you receive your clearance
If you can’t this isn’t an option
You are responsible for see and avoid both traffic and obstacles
If you accept your clearance below the minimum IFR altitude, you are responsible for your own terrain separation – break out the sectional!

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