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Federal Aviation Regulations

Part 61, 91
The regs cover a relatively short span of part 91
The Instrument section is 91.167 – 91.193
Of those we will cover 91.167 – 91.187
There are a few others…

Recent flight experience, PIC
Remember currency is based on a calendar month
Questions on the 6 month look-back?

Special VFR weather minimums
Between the hours of sunset and sunrise (night) the person must meet the applicable requirements for instrument flight under part 61
The aircraft is equipped for IFR

Fuel requirements for flight in IFR conditions
Enough fuel to fly to destination +45min at normal cruise
Helicopters +30min
If an alternate is required, enough fuel to fly to your destination, then to your alternate, then thereafter for 45min

IFR flight plan:
Determining an alternate:
1hr before to 1hr after the ETA at least 2000 feet and 3SM (123 rule)
Helicopters ETA + 1hr after at least 1000 feet or 400 feet above the lowest approach minima whichever is higher there will be 2SM vis (1142 rule)
In determining the weather you must use appropriate weather reports or forecasts or a combination of them
TAF vs FA scenario

Alternate wx minimums
If your alternate has an approved approach procedure
At the ETA for the alternate you must have:
The alternate wx published if non standard
600 and 2 for precision approaches
800 and 2 for non precision approaches
For helicopters, 200 above the minimum for the approach to be flown and 1SM vis. But never less than the vis listed for the approach to be flown
If your alternate does not have an approved approach procedure
Ceiling and vis allowing descent from the MEA, approach and landing under basic VFR
In determining the weather you must use appropriate weather reports or forecasts or a combination of them
If landing at a non towered airport, you are responsible for closing your flight plan

VOR equipment check for IFR operations
No person may operate under IFR using the VOR unless the VOR has been
Maintained, checked and inspected under an approved procedure or
Within the previous 30 days the VOR has been operationally checked to be found within the limits
The limits:
Radiates one radial, the 360
May be done airborne or on the ground
A/FD will indicate if ground (G) or airborne (A)
Locations listed in the A/FD
Usually uses 108.0 for the frequency
Certified ground checkpoints
Certified airborne checkpoints
Homemade airborne checkpoints
More than 20 miles out
Over a prominent landmark
Reasonably low altitide
One system against the other

This reg establishes a hierarchy of which checks to be done starting with
Surface checkpoint
Airborne checkpoint designated by the Administrator
Homemade checkpoint
Dual VOR check tuned to the same VOR
Person doing the check shall enter
Bearing error
If a designated repair station is used, the aircraft logbook needs to be signed by the holder of the repair station certificate

ATC clearance and flight plan required
No person may operate an aircraft in controlled airspace under IFR unless that person has—
(a) Filed an IFR flight plan; and
(b) Received an appropriate ATC clearance.
This means you must have an IFR clearance prior to entering controlled airspace
No such requirement exists for flight in uncontrolled airspace

Takeoff and landing under IFR
If necessary to use an approach procedure, you must use one published in part 97
Can’t use one you made unless it is approved
When using an approach with a DA/DH or MDA you must use the higher of the following:
The DA/DH or MDA prescribed for the PIC
This is for CAT II and CAT III ops
The DA/DH or MDA appropriate for the aircraft equipment

Operation below the DA/DH or MDA
Only authorized if
The aircraft is continuously in a position from which a descent to a landing on the intended runway can be made at a normal rate of descent using normal maneuvers, and for operations conducted under part 121 or part 135 unless that descent rate will allow touchdown to occur within the touchdown zone of the runway of intended landing;
(2) The flight visibility is not less than the visibility prescribed in the standard instrument approach being used; and
(3) Except for a Category II or Category III approach where any necessary visual reference requirements are specified by the Administrator, at least one of the following visual references for the intended runway is distinctly visible and identifiable to the pilot:
There are 12 visual references that you need to memorize

The Approach Light System
Runway End Identifier Lights (REIL)
Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI or PAPI)
The Threshold
Threshold markings
Threshold lights
The Touchdown Zone
Touchdown Zone markings
Touchdown Zone lights
The Runway
Runway markings
Runway lights

There’s more on approach light systems
You may not descend below 100 feet above the TDZE using the approach lights as a reference unless the red terminating bars or red side row bars are distinctly visible and identifiable
The catch is there are only 2 approach light systems with this lighting configuration:
ALSF-2 (top)
ALSF-1 (bottom)

You may not land unless the flight visibility is equal to or greater than the published vis
Missed approach
If you loose visual references and are below the MDA
Upon arrival at the DA/DH or MAP and anytime after that if you visual references
When circling whenever an identifiable part of the airport is not distinctly visible

Takeoffs, there are none for 91 operations
For 121, 125, 129 or 135
2 engines or less 1SM
3 or more ½ SM
Helicopters ½ SM
If there is an ODP they have to use it
If you go into a military airport you have to use their rules
It also states radar may be used for ASR and PAR approaches and other types of approaches

While being radar vectored or on an unpublished route and approach clearance is received, maintain the last assigned altitude until established on a segment of a published route or approach procedure unless assigned a different altitude by ATC
Limitation on procedure turns
No procedure turn is to be done when
Radar vectors are being received
Timed approach from a holding fix
NoPT is specified on the chart
Cleared for a straight in approach

ILS components
Approach light system

Minimum altitudes for IFR operations
You may not operate under the published MEA except when a MOCA is published only then within 22NM from the naviad
If no altitude is published then within 4NM from the course
2000 feet in mountainous terrain
1000 feet in non-mountainous terrain
In any other case not within 4NM and 1000 feet of any terrain
Climb to a higher minimum shall begin immediately after passing the point beyond which the higher minimum applies
If an MCA is published climb so as to cross at or above the MCA

IFR cruising altitude or flight level
In controlled airspace, whatever ATC assigns
If operating VFR on Top then use VFR altitudes appropriate for direction of flight
Below 18,000
For IFR mag courses 0-179 odd thousands
For IFR mag courses 180-359 even courses
18,000 to FL290
For IFR mag courses 0-179 odd FL 190,210,230
For IFR mag courses 180-359 even FL 180,200,220
FL290 and above
4000 foot intervals 290, 330, 370
If RVSM then its back to thousands

Operations with airspace designated as reduced vertical separation minimum airspace
The operator and the aircraft have to meet the standards under appendix G
The operator has to be authorized
Deviations are available

Course to be flown
You have to be on the centerline of the airway
If direct then on the centerline between the defining route fixes
You may maneuver in VFR to pass clear of other traffic in the climb or descent

IFR communications
Must maintain a continuous watch on the active frequency and report
Time and altitude passing a reporting point unless in radar contact, then only when asked
Any unforecasted weather
Any other information relating to flight safety

IFR operations: Two way radio communications failure
VFR conditions
If in VFR, continue the flight in VFR and land as soon as practicable
IFR conditions
Route last assigned by ATC
If being radar vectored direct to the route, fix or airway specified in the vector clearance
Route ATC advised expected in a further clearance
Route filed in the flight plan
Last assigned by ATC
ATC advised expected in a further clearance

Leaving the clearance limit
When the clearance limit is a fix from which an approach begins, commence descent or descent and approach as close as possible to the expect-further-clearance time if one has been received, or if one has not been received, as close as possible to the estimated time of arrival as calculated from the filed or amended (with ATC) estimated time enroute.
If the clearance limit is not a fix from which an approach begins, leave the clearance limit at the expect-further- clearance time if one has been received, or if none has been received, upon arrival over the clearance limit, and proceed to a fix from which an approach begins and commence descent or descent and approach as close as possible to the estimated time of arrival as calculated from the filed or amended (with ATC) estimated time enroute.

Operation under IFR in controlled airspace: Malfunction reports
Report as soon as practical any malfunctions of
Navigational equipment
Approach equipment
Communication equipment
Desired assistance

Instrument and equipment requirements
Generator or alternator
Radio, two way
Altimeter, sensitive
Ball, slip/skid indicator
Attitude indicator
Rate of turn indicator, gyroscopic
Directional gyro, heading indicator
Above 24000 if using VOR then DME is required

Other Random Stuff
No transponder is needed to fly IFR unless the airspace requires it, even then you may request a deviation
The VSI is not a required IFR instrument but curiously you are required to report unable 500fpm

Provide timely knowledge to flyers and other aviation interests of information or conditions which are essential to safety of flight
The Notices To Airmen Publication (NTAP) contains all the NOTAMs
Comes out every 28 days
Remains in the NTAP until expiration of the NOTAM or the change is made to the associated publication
There are 5 categories of NOTAMs
Covers navaids, taxiway closures, personnel and equipment, airport lighting not effecting IAPs
FDC NOTAMs (Flight Data Center)
Information that is regulatory in nature like amendments to IAPs and maps, also TFRs
Pointer NOTAMs
Issued by the FSS to point out another NOTAM such as an FDC or D NOTAM
This type of NOTAM assists users in cross-referencing NOTAMs that wouldn’t normally come up under a associated navaid or identifier
Issued when special activity airspace will be active outside the published times
Military NOTAMs
Pertain to armed forces navaids and airports that are part of the national airspace system

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