ADM, CRM, Physiology, and Emergencies

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The sensory organs:
Mark V eyeball
Ears including motion sensing and balance
Nervous system in the skin, joints, muscles

Your eye is made up of Rods and Cones
Rods are light receptive nerves that sense peripheral vision and shades of grey
Cones are light receptive nerves that sense color and clear visual acuity
It takes 30 minutes for a chemical called Rhodopsin (visual purple) to build
Iodopsin is used by the cones and is present all the time
After 10 minutes of darkness your eyes are 10,000 times more sensitive
After 30 minutes they are 100,000 time more sensitive
The attachment point of the optic nerve creates a blind spot

Eye Mechanics
The retina is a light-sensitive layer at the back of the eye that covers about 65 percent of its interior surface.
Photosensitive cells called rods and cones in the retina convert incident light energy into signals that are carried to the brain by the optic nerve.
A person has about 120 million rods and 6 to 7 million cones
In the middle of the retina is a small dimple called the fovea or fovea centralis.
It is the center of the eye’s sharpest vision and the location of most color perception.
During IMC the eyes may focus at a distance of 10 to 20 feet
This is referred to as Empty Field Myopia

Why Do We Use Red Light In The Cockpit?
The light response of the rods peaks sharply in the blue; they respond very little to red light. This leads to some interesting phenomena:
Since the rods do not respond to red, pilots can gain full dark-adapted vision with the rods with which to watch for airplanes and other obstacles outside.
It would be undesirable to examine anything with white light even for a moment, because the attainment of optimum night-vision may take up to a half-hour. Red lights do not spoil it.
These phenomena arise from the nature of the rod-dominated dark-adapted vision, called scotopic vision.
It also means we tend to pick up blue light better than red light i.e. our eyes are more sensitive to blue.

There are 2 major parts concerned with orientation:
Semicircular canals
Otolith organs

Semicircular Canals
Each of the canals is filled with endolymph fluid
Sensory hairs connected to vestibular nerves sense the movement of the fluid

Visual Illusions
False Horizon
Sloping cloud formations
Obscured horizon
Northern lights
Stationary light jumps about when stared at
Runway Width Illusion
Narrower than usual looks high
Wider than normal looks low
Runway and Terrain Slopes Illusion
Upsloping runway or terrain looks high causing a low approach
Downsloping runway is opposite
Featureless Terrain Illusion
Over water approach, dark areas, snow creates a black hole approach
Causes a lower than normal approach
Water Refraction
Rain on the windscreen looks high causing a low approach
Looks like you’re farther away than you actually are
Causes a low approach
Clear bright conditions have the opposite effect
Flying into fog or clouds can create the illusion of pitching up
This causes the pilot to pitch down

Ear and Sinus Block
This happens when the Eustachian tube gets blocked and the pressure will not equalize
Very painful in ears or behind the eyes
Plugged ears or sinuses
incapacitation in some circumstances
Eardrum can rupture
Corrective Actions:
Use the Valsalva Maneuver
Descend very slowly or climb
Menthol inhaler
Menthol cough drops will sometimes work

Postural System
The body’s skin, muscles and joints sense your relationship to gravity
Seat of the pants flying is dependent on postural inputs
Centrifugal force can feel like gravity
Slips and skids can fool the brain and create illusions

Vestibular/Postural Illusions
The leans
Abrupt correction of a roll feels like a roll in the opposite direction
Coriolis Illusion
Fluid in the ear stabilizes in a turn, abrupt head movement creates the sensation of movement around a different axis
Graveyard Spiral
Prolonged coordinated turn causes the pilot to feel like a turn in the opposite direction after rollout, causing the pilot to re-enter the turn
Loss of lift in the turn results in increase back pressure which tightens the turn resulting in a spiral
Somatogravic Illusion
Rapid acceleration results in the sensation of a nose up attitude, a pitch down is the result
Inversion Illusion
Change from climb to straight and level creates the sensation of tumbling backwards
Elevator Illusion
An updraft creates the illusion of being in a climb, a pitch down is the result

carbon dioxide

Lack of oxygen to the body
Oxygen partial pressure
Different for different people
5000 feet at night
12,000 during daytime
12,500 to 14,000 above 15,000 oxygen rules

peripheral vision starts to grey out
Feeling of euphoria
Tingling in the extremities
Loss of judgment
Corrective Actions:
Go on Oxygen
Descend to a lower altitude

Time of Useful Consciousness
18,000 20 – 30 Minutes
22,000 10 Minutes
25,000 3 – 5 Minutes
28,000 2 – 3 Minutes
30,000 1 – 2 Minutes
35,000 30 Seconds
40,000 9 – 12 Seconds
43,000 9 – 12 Seconds
50,000 9 – 12 Seconds

Abnormal increase in the volume of air breathed in and out of the lungs which causes the body to blow off excessive carbon dioxide
Similar to hypoxia
Similar to hypoxia
Corrective Actions:
Set O2 system to deliver 100% O2 just in case it is hypoxia
Slow the breathing rate
Do the checklist out loud
Sing the Star Spangle Banner

Carbon Monoxide poisoning
CO attaches to the hemoglobin more readily than O2
Takes a Hyperbolic chamber to force the O2 back into the blood
Similar to hypoxia except finger nail beds and lips will turn red
Similar to hypoxia except add death to that list
Corrective Actions:
Close all heat valves
Set O2 system to deliver 100% O2 just in case it is hypoxia
Open window try to ventilate the cabin
Descend to a lower altitude

SCUBA Diving
The Bends
12 hours for flights below 8,000 and no dives requiring a controlled ascent
24 hours for flights above 8,000 or dives requiring a controlled ascent

Spatial Disorientation
This happens when your kinesthetic inputs disagree with what is really happening with the plane
The fluid in your semi-circular canals gets to sloshing around
Pay attention and believe your flight instruments

Fitness For Flight
I Illness
M Medication
S Stress
A Alcohol
F Fatigue
E Emotion

Risk Management
Use the 3P risk management cycle
Perceive, Process, Perform
Perceive with PAVE
Process with CARE
Perform as a TEAM

Risk Management
Pilot – Experience, currency, recency, physical and emotional condition
Aircraft – Fuel reserves, experience in type, aircraft perf
ormance, aircraft equipment
enVironment – Airport conditions, weather, runways, lighting , terrain
External Pressures- Allowance for delays, diversions, alternative plans, personal equipment

Risk Management
Consequences – Continuously evaluate the consequences of hazards that arise while en route
Alternatives – Continuously evaluate all available options and alternatives
Reality – Acknowledge and address the reality of your situation and avoid wishful thinking
External Pressures – Be mindful of external pressures especially tendencies toward get home itis

Risk Management
Transfer Risk – Should this risk decision be transferred to someone else for guidance?
Eliminate Risk – Is there a way to eliminate the hazard?
Accept Risk – Do the benefits of accepting risk outweigh the costs?
Mitigate Risk – What options do you have that can lessen the impact of the risk?

Limit your risk exposure by determining which hazardous attitude you lean toward
Lets take a closer look at the 5 hazardous attitudes
These will be on your instrument oral!

“Don’t tell me”
Rules are for squirrels
ATC clearances

Follow the rules. They are usually right.

“What’s the use?”
This is where the person just gives up
Oh well
They may believe that luck is their co pilot
The situation overwhelms them and by failing to act have condemned themselves

I’m not helpless. I can make a difference.

“I can do it”
I’m hot poo poo
These pilots think they have superior skill
Cocky, know it all types
Women are just as susceptible as men

Taking chances is foolish

“Do something… quickly”
Rush into a course of action without thinking first
The need to do something – anything
It overwhelms good ADM principles

Slow down, think before you act or speak.

“It won’t happen to me”
Accidents are what happen to others – not me
These types feel they will never be involved in a mishap

It can happen to me

NASA research indicates 60 – 80 percent of accidents involve human factors
Some share certain characteristics:
Poor group decision making
Ineffective communication
Inadequate leadership
Poor task management
Poor resource management

Most CRM training is in the form of “clusters”
Id problems, safety issues, division of labor, team concept
Inquiry, Advocacy, Assertion
A crewmember promoting a course of action they feel is the best solution
Crew Self Critique Regarding Decisions and Actions
Crewmembers effectiveness including the process and the people involved
Communications, Decisions
Free and open comm. Info is given at the appropriate time and decisions are questioned routinely

Leadership – Followership, Concern for Tasks
Use all available resources, balance respect and assertiveness
Interpersonal Relationships – Group Climate
Calm head under stressful situations, adaptability to other personalities, tone in the cockpit is friendly, relaxed

Preparation – Planning – Vigilance
Active monitoring of instruments, comm., wx, stay away from tunnel vision, be ahead of the curve
Workload Distributed – Distractions Avoided
Speak up when overloaded, maximize task effectiveness, social problems don’t affect duties

Compound emergencies are emergencies in quick succession
Verify information with your instrumentation
Follow the manufacturers recommended emergency checklist

When you know it is out of the ordinary it is probably time to take action
Always choose the course of action that will give you the most options
When all else fails undo what you just did

The emergency frequency is 121.5
ELT’s transmit on this frequency for up to 48 hours after a 5 to 7 g shock
The pilot should turn on the switch if possible after crashing to insure operation
Wear what you would like to spend the night in

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